ASTM D6483 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Diesel Engine Oils in T-9 Diesel Engine
9.1 Pretest Procedure:
9.1.1 Initial Oil Fill for Pretest Break-In - The initial oil fill is 39.2 kg (86.4 lb) of test oil: 22.9 kg (50.4 lb) for the pan, 3.3 kg (7.2 lb) for the filters, 1.6 kg (3.6 lb) for the engine oil cooler, and 11.4 kg (25.2 lb) for the auxiliary oil reservoir and lines. Add the first 3.3 kg (7.2 lb) of fresh test oil to the oil filters (half in each filter), then turn on the auxiliary oil pumps and add an additional 35.9 kg (79.2 lb) of test oil to the engine. This oil can be added directly through the engine oil fill tube.
9.1.2 Pretest Break-In:
184.108.40.206 Start the engine, as described in 9.2. Run the break-in sequence described in Table 3.
220.127.116.11 After the 1 h break-in, drain the oil and replace all oil filters. Refill the engine with test oil, and conduct the test in accordance with 9.4.
9.2 Engine Start-Up - Each time the engine is started, work up to 20 to 30 % of full load at 1000 to 1400 r/min and hold until the oil sump temperature reaches approximately 66 to 77°C (150 to 170°F). This takes approximately 10 min for a cold engine. Then go to test conditions. Start-ups are not included as test time. Start test time as soon as the engine returns to the test cycle. Define the start date and time of a test as when the engine reaches test conditions as shown in Table 4. (Warning - The engine should be cranked prior to start-up to fill the engine oil passages. This practice will enhance engine durability significantly.)
9.3 Engine Shutdown:
9.3.1 The engine is shut down for periods of time. Before each shutdown, operate the engine at 1000 to 1400 r/min no-load for 10 min, then close the fuel rack. Do not count the shutdown operation as test time. Record the length and reason of each shutdown (see Annex A1).
9.3.2 All operationally valid tests shall not exceed 15 shutdowns. Additionally, all operationally valid tests shall not exceed 200 h of downtime.
9.4 Test Cycle:
9.4.1 The test cycle includes a break-in at the conditions shown in Table 3. Conduct the test at 1800 r/min full power conditions for 75 h (Phase I), followed by 1250 r/min full torque conditions for 425 h (Phase II), as described in Table 4.
18.104.22.168 Based upon oil analysis, injection timing may be changed within the first 75 h of the test (Phase I) to ensure meeting the 75-h soot window of 1.5 to 2.0 %.
22.214.171.124 Check the valve lash and, if necessary, reset at 125, 250, and 375 h (50, 175, and 300 h into Phase II) +/- 8 h.
9.4.2 Operational Validity - Determine operational validity in accordance with Annex A9.
9.5 Oil Addition/Drain:
9.5.1 Initially establish the full mark as the oil weight after 1 h of running at Phase I test conditions. At the end of the first 50 h period, perform a forced drain that equates to an oil consumption of 0.170 g/kW-h (0.00028 lb/bhp-h). If a sample is required, follow the guidelines set forth in 9.6. If a sample is not required, then drain a sufficient amount of oil to obtain an oil weight that is 2.27 kg (5.0 lb) below the full mark. Then add 2.27 kg (5.0 lb) of new oil to the engine.
9.5.2 Reestablish the full mark as the oil weight after 1 h of running at Phase II test conditions, but do not add any new oil until 100 test hours (25 h into Phase II). At 100 test hours and each 50 h period thereafter, perform a forced drain that equates to an oil consumption of 0.160 g/kW-h (0.00025 lb/bhp-h). If a sample is required, follow the guidelines set forth in 9.6. If a sample is not required, then drain a sufficient amount of oil to obtain an oil weight that is 2.27 kg (5.0 lb) below this new full mark, and add 2.27 kg (5.0 lb) of new oil to the engine. After a shutdown, use the drain level of the previous period to determine the forced drain quantity.
9.6 Oil Samples - Take 118-mL (4 oz) oil samples at 25-h intervals for the first 100 h, then at 50-h intervals from 100 to 400 h. Take oil samples at 25-h intervals from 400 to 500 h. The 425 and 475 h samples are for lead content analysis only, and 30 mL (1 oz) samples may be taken instead of 118 mL (4 oz) samples. Obtain oil samples through a drain petcock located in the oil rig return line (oil pan return pump) (see Fig. A2.8). Always take oil samples before new oil is added.
9.7 Oil Consumption Calculations:
9.7.1 Record the oil weight hourly, and compute the oil consumption from these readings.
9.7.2 Calculate the average oil consumption for the test as the average of the nine 50-h periods from 51 to 500 h. Do not use the first 50-h period to calculate oil consumption since this is a period of stabilization of the oil scale system. Do not include oil drains and samples as oil consumption.
9.7.3 Use the following formula to calculate the oil consumption for a 50 h period:
Oil Consumption (g/kW - h) = (FW - Wn)/(P x 50)
FW = full weight (g),
Wn = oil scale weight at n test h before additions, samples, or drains (g), and
P = brake power output of the engine (kW).
The reported oil consumption is the average of the nine 50-h period oil consumption calculations.
9.7.4 The full weight may need to be recalculated, depending on the rate of oil consumption of the engine for the 50-h period. If the oil consumption is greater than 0.160 g/kW-h, then recalculate the full weight by subtracting the weight of the oil sample and adding the weight of the oil addition (2.27 kg) to the previous 50-h period’s weight.
9.8 Fuel Samples - Take fuel samples (two 0.95 L [1 qt] samples) prior to the start of test and at the end of test (EOT).
9.9 Periodic Measurements:
9.9.1 Make measurements at 6-min intervals on the parameters listed in 9.9.2, and record statistics (see Annex A1). Automatic data acquisition is required. Recorded values shall have minimum resolution, as shown in Table 5. Characterize the procedure used to calculate the data averages (see Annex A1).
126.96.36.199 Speed, r/min.
188.8.131.52 Torque, N·m (lbf·ft).
184.108.40.206 Oil temperature, °C (°F).
220.127.116.11 Coolant out temperature, °C (°F).
18.104.22.168 Coolant in temperature, °C (°F).
22.214.171.124 Intake air temperature, °C (°F).
126.96.36.199 Intake manifold temperature, °C (°F).
188.8.131.52 Intake manifold pressure, kPa (in. Hg).
184.108.40.206 Fuel flow, s/kg or kg/h (s/lb or lb/h).
220.127.116.11 Fuel inlet temperature, °C (°F).
18.104.22.168 Tailpipe exhaust back pressure, kPa (in. H2O).
22.214.171.124 Before filter oil pressure, kPa (psi).
126.96.36.199 Main gallery oil pressure, kPa (psi).
188.8.131.52 Crankcase pressure, kPa (in. H2O).
184.108.40.206 Pre-turbine exhaust temperature, front manifold, °C (°F).
220.127.116.11 Pre-turbine exhaust temperature, rear manifold, °C (°F).
18.104.22.168 Inlet air restriction, kPa (in. H2O).
22.214.171.124 Tailpipe exhaust temperature, °C (°F).
126.96.36.199 Crankcase blowby, L/min (ft3/min) (see 10.10).
188.8.131.52 Pre-turbine exhaust pressure, front manifold, kPa (in. Hg).
184.108.40.206 Pre-turbine exhaust pressure, rear manifold, kPa (in. Hg).
220.127.116.11 Inlet air humidity, g/kg (grains/lb).
9.10 Blowby - Record the total crankcase blowby at a minimum of 8-h intervals. Take care to prevent oil traps from occurring in the blowby line at any time during operation.
9.11 Centrifugal Oil Filter Mass Gain - Prior to the start of test, determine the mass of the centrifugal oil filter canister. At EOT, remove the centrifugal oil filter canister from the engine and drain upside down for 30 min. After draining, determine the mass of the canister and record for non-reference oils and for reference oils (see Annex A1). Centrifugal oil filter mass gain determination is required for calibration tests and optional for non-reference oil tests.
9.12 Oil Filter ΔP Calculation - The reported oil filter ΔP is the maximum oil filter ΔP that occurs as a result of the test. Calculate the oil filter ΔP as follows:
ΔP = ΔPmax - ΔPinitial
ΔPmax = the maximum ΔP across the oil filter, and
ΔPini- = the ΔP across the oil filter at the start of test tial conditions.
If an oil filter change is made, add the oil filter ΔP value obtained after the filter change to the oil filter ΔP obtained prior to the filter change. If a shutdown occurs, add the oil filter ΔP value obtained after the shutdown to the oil filter ΔP obtained prior to the shutdown. Change the oil filter if the ΔP exceeds 138 kPa (20 psi).