ASTM D5302 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils for Inhibition of Deposit Formation and Wear in a Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine Fueled with Gasoline and Operated Under Low-Temperature, Light-Duty Conditions
8. Engine Fluids - Supply/Discharge Systems
8.1 Intake Air:
8.1.1 Capacity - The supply system shall be capable of delivering 80 scfm (38 L/s) of conditioned air, while maintaining the intake-air parameters detailed in Table 3. A typical intake air duct is shown in Fig. 1 (also see Fig.A3.3 and Fig.A3.4).
8.1.2 Dew Point - The dew point can be measured in the main system duct or at the test stand (X2.1.9 lists suppliers of suitable instruments). If the dew point is measured in the main system duct, verify the dew point periodically at the test stand. Maintain the duct surface temperature above the dew point temperature at all points downstream of the humidity measurement point to prevent condensation and loss of humidity level.
8.1.3 Filtration - Since no air filtration is provided at the intake-air horn, the supply system shall provide either water-washed or filtered air to the duct. The filtration system shall have sufficient flow capacity to maintain the specified intake-air pressure.
8.2.1 Description - A schematic diagram of a typical fuel supply system is shown in Fig.4. Supply an excess volume of fuel to the fuel rail at all times. Introduce make-up fuel (fuel used by the engine) into the loop from an external source. Mix the make-up fuel with fuel that is returned from the fuel rail (fuel not used by the engine). Pump the fuel through a mixing chamber, or small heat exchanger, which is used to mix the two streams and provide fuel of consistent temperature to the engine. Deliver the fuel to a high-pressure pump, which boosts the pressure and supplies the fuel to the fuel rail.
8.2.2 Controls - Maintain the fuel temperature below the initial boiling point of Phillips J fuel. To ensure good atomization of the fuel, maintain the fuel pressure above 27 psig (186 kPa). In addition, the fuel pressure should be constant at all steady-state conditions to ensure good speed, power, and air-fuel ratio control.
8.2.3 Fuel Volume Required - Approximately 630 gal (2385 L) of Phillips J reference unleaded gasoline are required for each test.
8.2.4 Fuel Batch Approval Process - Each new batch of fuel is approved by the following process:
126.96.36.199 Before initial blending, each of the four fuel components is analyzed, and the data are compared with predetermined physical specifications. A small amount of fuel mixture is then blended, analyzed, and compared to predetermined specifications. The TMC determines the acceptability of the analytical data and authorizes blending of the entire batch for engine testing.
188.8.131.52 A sample of the fuel is shipped to two designated independent laboratories. A designed program involving more than one calibration test is completed using reference oils selected by the TMC. (The Sequence VE Reference Oils and Fuels Sub Panel, of Subcommittee B of ASTM Committee D-2, is involved in the design of the program.) The TMC reviews the test results and authorizes the fuel supplier to notify potential purchasers of the approval status of the fuel batch.
8.2.5 Fuel Batch Analysis:
184.108.40.206 Analyze each fuel shipment upon receipt from the supplier to determine the value of the parameters shown in Table 3 (except sulfur, oxidation stability, and distillation). Compare the results to the values obtained by the supplier on that particular batch. The results should be within the tolerances shown in parentheses beside each parameter. This provides a method to determine ifthe fuel batch is contained or has aged prematurely. If any results fall outside the tolerances shown in Table 3, the laboratory should contact the TMC for help in resolving the problem.
220.127.116.11 Analyze the contents of each fuel storage tank used for qualified Sequence VE tests every two months. Fuel in run tanks, those with a direct feed line to test engines, shall be analyzed monthly. It is recommended that laboratories take composite samples in accordance with Practice D4057 as a guideline. Record on the fuel sample label the paragraph in Practice D4057 that best describes the sampling method utilized. The fuel supplier provides an adequate supply of fuel sample containers with packaging and pre-addressed return labels to each Sequence VE laboratory. Upon receipt of fuel samples from the laboratory, the fuel supplier performs the following analyses, tabulates the results, and reports results to the submitting laboratory.
(a) In instances where results from the tests listed previously appear to vary significantly from the expected results, a second sample shall be analyzed or the following tests shall be conducted, or both:
Test Method D5134 Hydrocarbon Speciation (by way of Gas Chromatography)
Test Method D525 Oxidation Stability
Test Method D873 Potential Gums
18.104.22.168 Forward the results of the analyses performed in 22.214.171.124 and 126.96.36.199 to the TMC for inclusion in the appropriate database.
8.2.6 Fuel Batch Shipment and Storage - Ship the fuel in containers with the minimum allowable venting as dictated by all safety and environmental regulations, especially when shipment times are anticipated to be longer than one week. Store the fuel following all applicable safety and environmental regulations.
8.3 Engine Oil:
8.3.1 Non-Reference Test Oil Description:
188.8.131.52 The non-reference sample shall be uncontaminated and representative of the lubricant formulation being evaluated.
184.108.40.206 A minimum of 2.0 gal (7.6 L) of new oil is required to complete the test. A 5-gal (18.9-L) sample of new oil is normally provided to allow for inadvertent losses.
8.3.2 System Description:
220.127.116.11 Design the oil system to minimize stand-to-stand variations that could influence test severity. Control the oil flow rate and pressure drop by specifying the volume, plumbing configuration, and orientation of the heat exchanger. Specify the location of the heat exchanger only in a vertical plane. Configure the heat exchanger so that the process water and engine oil are in counter-flow. The lengths of the lines are not specified, but the line length and diameter have a large influence on the volume of the external system. The internal volume of the entire external system shall be 18 +/- 3 oz (530 +/- 90 mL).
18.104.22.168 Configure the external oil system in accordance with the schematic diagrams and photographs shown in Figs.A3.10 through A3.13. Use the remote filter adapter OHTA-007-1 for tests started on or after September 1, 1996. This adapter is available from the supplier shown in X2.1.28. Typical volumes of the various components of the external oil system are detailed in Fig.A3.10. Install a new Motorcraft FL-300 oil filter on the external oil filter adapter as shown in Fig.A3.12. Be sure all hoses and fittings on the oil heat exchanger are properly connected and secure. Do not use brass and copper fittings in the external oil system since they may influence used oil (wear metals) analysis.
8.3.3 Heat Exchanger - The heat exchanger has been chosen to minimize the volume of the external system. The heat exchanger has adequate but not excessive capacity to control the oil temperature. The system requires a high level of maintenance to provide adequate cooling, especially when process water temperatures are high. An effective, well-maintained process water control system is necessary to achieve the specified oil temperatures. Carefully choose the controller and the system configuration to achieve proper response time, achieve the cyclic ramping specifications, and provide stable control at the three set points.
8.3.4 System Cleaning:
22.214.171.124 Clean the external oil cooling system thoroughly before each test. An acceptable technique for cleaning the oil heat exchanger is detailed in Annex A2. Flush and rinse the external lines before each test. The specific technique used (removed from or flushed on the stand, and so forth) is left to the discretion of the laboratory.
126.96.36.199 Regardless of the flushing technique employed, use an organic solvent (see 7.7.3) for the final flushing followed by separate rinses with hot (> 60°C) water and aliphatic naphtha before air-drying the components. (Warning - Incomplete cleaning of the external oil system may allow debris to dislodge and circulate throughout the engine during subsequent tests. Incomplete cleaning may also cause oil temperature control problems and contaminate subsequent test oils.)
8.3.5 Engine Oil Pre-Lube Device - Turn the engine oil pump with a portable power source to fill the galleries with oil after engine reassembly. A modified distributor, without a cap, rotor, or gear, and a 3/8 -in. (9.5-mm) electric drill are recommended to drive the oil pump.
8.3.6 Control Specifications - The oil inlet temperature and allowable oil pressure differential are specified in Table 2. Additional information concerning the oil pressure differentials is found in 188.8.131.52. Cyclic ramping specifications are detailed in Table 4.
8.4.1 Description - The engine and RAC coolant is a solution of demineralized (less than 2 grains/lb [0.034 g/kg]) or distilled water and an additive treatment - 16 oz (470 mL) (fluid) of Pencool 2000 per 4 gal (15 L) of water.
8.4.2 General - The following guidelines are common to both the engine and RAC coolant systems:
184.108.40.206 A transparent section is required to permit visual inspection of the coolant. Provide air blends to allow removal of entrained air. Provide a drain at the low point of the system to allow complete draining of the system.
220.127.116.11 Carefully choose the controller and the system configuration to achieve proper response time, achieve the cyclic ramping specifications, and provide stable control of the set points. An effective, well-maintained process water control system is necessary to achieve the specified coolant temperatures.
18.104.22.168 The system shall allow precise calibration of the flowmeters, after installation in the test stand. Avoid turbulence near the measurement meters and the flowmeters used for calibration.
8.4.3 Engine Coolant System:
22.214.171.124 Configure the engine cooling system according to the schematic diagram shown in Fig.A3.7, and the photographs in Fig.A3.8 and Fig.A3.9. Install a thermocouple into a modified thermostat housing and install the thermostat housing. Do not install the thermostat. Inspect the water pump drive V-belt for defects before installation. Install and tension the water pump drive V-belt.
126.96.36.199 A radiator cap is used to limit system pressure, although the coolant system pressure is not measured or controlled. The heat exchanger and control valve size are not specified, but the total coolant system capacity should be minimized.
188.8.131.52 The engine coolant flow rate and outlet temperature are controlled in accordance with the specifications listed in Table 2. Information concerning the coolant flow rate measurement device is detailed in 9.3.2. Cyclic ramping specifications are detailed in Table 4. The coolant flow rate is measured with a venturi flowmeter and varied with a control valve or a manual valve.
184.108.40.206 Maintain engine coolant system pressure at 10 +/- 1 psig. Measure coolant system pressure at the top of the fluid level in the coolant reservoir.
8.4.4 RAC Coolant System:
220.127.116.11 Periodically inspect and clean the complete RAC control system. If a high level of RAC coolant jacket deposit is found, flush the complete cooling system. A specific flushing technique is not specified. However, the technique should employ a commercial descaling cleaner.
18.104.22.168 Schematic diagrams of typical RAC coolant control systems are shown in Fig.5 and Fig.6. Heat for the control system can be derived from an external source, such as the marine manifold, an electric immersion heater, hot water, or steam.
22.214.171.124 Control the RAC coolant flow rate and inlet temperature in accordance with the specifications listed in Table 2. The coolant pressure is not specified, but design the system to minimize the pressure on the RAC and prevent distortion of the jacket. (Warning - Maintain the system pressure below 10 psig (69 kPa) to prevent distortion of the RAC jacket.)
126.96.36.199 Cyclic ramping specifications are detailed in Table 4.
8.4.5 Exhaust Manifold Coolant System:
188.8.131.52 Do not circulate coolant from the engine jacket through the exhaust marine manifold.
184.108.40.206 Exhaust system components downstream of the exhaust gas sampling and exhaust back pressure measurement fitting are not specified. Water-cooled exhaust plumbing downstream of the exhaust probes is a typical laboratory practice. The design should minimize buildup of corrosive materials in the exhaust system. The exhaust back pressure control equipment shall provide stable control within the limits specified. (Warning - Good engineering practices should be utilized to ensure safe operation of this system. The coolant outlet temperature of the marine manifold should be maintained below the boiling point of the coolant. High temperature, low water flow, and low water pressure alarms are recommended to prevent damage due to lack of cooling during engine operation.)