ASTM D5862 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oils in Two-Stroke Cycle Turbo-Supercharged 6V92TA Diesel Engine
8. Apparatus - Test Engine
8.1 Test Engine - Detroit Diesel 6V92TA 9 L500 horsepower (rating for evaluation of lubricants) turbo-supercharged, aftercooled, two-stroke cycle diesel engine is procured from the recommended source. Rebuild the engine as specified in this test method. It is based on the Industrial Engine Model Number 8063-7408 which has the power rating of 410 kW (550 bhp) at 2300 r/min. Engine timing: 1.484 in., Lash 0.016 in.
8.2 Engine Parts - Engine parts which are to be used for intermittent overhauls required in conducting this test procedure are listed in Annex A3. Critical parts are discussed under 8.2.4 and 8.2.5. Subassemblies are listed by complete subassemblies only; not by parts making up the subassemblies. Such parts are not replaced routinely and can be obtained from the Detroit Diesel Distributor.
8.2.1 Use all engine parts as received from the supplier; either the special kits from the Detroit Diesel Distributor (see 8.2.4), or original equipment manufactured by Detroit Diesel, unless defects in the parts require that they be returned to the supplier.
8.2.2 Do not divert to other applications parts obtained for use in 6V92TA testing.
8.2.3 Special tools are required for over-haul and measurement of the engine. Unless otherwise specified in this standard, these tools are available from the supplier and part numbers are listed in the Service Manual.
8.2.4 Service Part Kit - Use the service parts (see Annex A3) and special parts in 8.2.5 and build-up procedures appropriate to the 6V92TA test engine stated in the service manual. Engine build-up and overhaul cannot be easily accomplished without this manual. Special service test cylinder kits (23508936) comprise parts that shall be replaced after each test and are available by order from any Detroit Diesel Distributor. These parts have undergone 100 % inspection by the test developer and orders for these uniquely numbered parts are linked by computer to a centrally controlled supply. The parts that replaced each test are included in these special service kits. They shall be used with no substitutions. Any difficulties experienced in ordering these pre-inspected parts should be referred to the test developer.
8.2.5 Required New Engine Parts - See Table 1.
8.2.6 Parts Replaced As Needed - See Table 2. Not routinely replaced, these parts have normal service part numbers and shall be used.
8.2.7 Cylinder Liners - The following measurements and directives shall be followed for free standing cylinder liners.
22.214.171.124 Measure diametrical cylinder bore:
Specified range is 122.911 to 122.974 mm (4.8390 to 4.8415 in.). Measure and report on two axes (eight total measurements). Use Form 11 (see Annex A5) for reporting these measurements.
126.96.36.199 Surface Finish: Maintain 1.1 - 1.7 µm (45–65 µ-in.) Ra above the ports. Use Form 11 (see Annex A5) for reporting these measurements.
188.8.131.52 Sort liners by flange height, identified by L or H. Use only the same flange heights on each side of the engine; however both sizes may be used in the same engine.
8.2.8 Piston Ring Measurement - Measure all rings as follows:
184.108.40.206 Measure radial thickness for all fire and compression rings. Measure in five locations, two at 25 mm each side of the ring gap, one opposite the gap, and two more locations mid-distance between the gap and opposite the gap. Average the measurements and record on Form 10 (see Annex A5).
220.127.116.11 Measure end gaps using 123.0 mm (4.840 in.) gage.
(1) Fire and Compression Rings - 1.016 +/- 0.127 mm (0.040 +/- 0.005 in.).
(2) Oil Control Rings - Upper 0.4064 +/- 0.025 mm (0.016 +/- 0.001 in.). Lower 0.5842 +/- 0.051 mm (0.023 +/- 0.002 in.).
18.104.22.168 Weigh all rings in grams. Use Form 10 (see Annex A5) for reporting these measurements.
8.2.9 Piston Skirt Measurements and Clearances:
22.214.171.124 Diameter of the piston shall be 122.667 to 122.733 mm (4.8294 to 4.8320 in.) measured at 13 mm (0.5 in.) toward the top of the piston skirt 90° from the piston pin hole. This dimension includes tin plate.
126.96.36.199 Tin plate thickness for pistons supplied in the test kit shall be measured and verified to be in specification by the test kit supplier.
188.8.131.52 Piston skirt to liner clearance shall fall between 0.1778 and 0.3048 mm (0.007 and 0.012 in.), to be determined by subtracting diameters. Use Form 11 (see Annex A5) for reporting these measurements.
8.2.10 Piston Pin Slipper Bushing - Weigh to +/- 0.001 g. Use Form 10 (see Annex A5) for reporting these measurements.
8.2.11 Main Bearings - Inspect main bearing shells prior to each test and replace every three tests or sooner, if necessary.
8.2.12 Rocker Arm Bushings Injector Position - Measure the inside diameter and record on Form 11 (see Annex A5).
8.2.13 Valves - Leak check prior to each test. Regrind or replace valves every five tests. See 184.108.40.206.
8.2.14 Connecting Rods - Install a new set of six connecting rods at least every tenth test. It is recommended that all six connecting rods be replaced following a cylinder kit failure.
8.2.15 Injectors - Check injector output every test. These data may be recorded on the form in Appendix X3, (Fig.X3.10) or a similar form. Replace with new or rebuilt injectors if injector requirements are not met. These are described in Section 2.0 of the Shop Notes. A special tool, J22410 is called for.
220.127.116.11 If injector rebuilding is selected, use the following injector exchange program, ASTM Injector Exchange Program, Detroit Diesel Remanufacturing - West, Inc., 100 Lodestone Way, Tooele, UT 84074. Attention: ASTM Injector Exchange Administrator.
8.2.16 Ordering Information:
18.104.22.168 Refer to Part Number 5226555 ASTM.
22.214.171.124 Delivery will be ten days after ordering.
126.96.36.199 Injectors will be identified with "ASTM" conspicuously stamped on the injector body.
188.8.131.52 It is recommended that laboratories maintain 12 working and calibrated injectors per engine minimum.
8.2.17 Additional Information:
184.108.40.206 Injectors will be disassembled and cleaned.
220.127.116.11 A new spray tip assembly will be installed.
18.104.22.168 Plunger and bushing to be machined to new part specifications.
22.214.171.124 Output flow specification 140 to 145 cc.
126.96.36.199 All injectors to be visually inspected for visual and functional defects.
8.3 Special Cleaning Procedures - Before any major disassembly, drain the engine of lubrication oil, water and fuel. Before removing any subassemblies from the engine (but after removal of the electrical equipment) thoroughly clean the exterior of the engine. Then, after each subassembly is removed and disassembled, clean the individual parts as necessary. Engine build-up forms are provided in Appendix X3 and may be used to organize the cleaning, parts measurements, and engine build-up tasks.
8.3.1 Engine Block Cleaning - Complete disassembly of the block may not be required, provided adequate cleaning is accomplished. This modification shall be included in the test report. If disassembly is required, the following procedure should be used. Note that a new service replacement cylinder block shall be cleaned with Penetone to remove the rust preventive and the oil galleries shall be blown out with compressed air. (Warning - In addition to other precautions, to prevent possible personal injury, wear adequate eye protection. Penetone is a solvent and should not be ingested, nor come into contact with eyes or more than casual contact with the skin; spray goggles and hand protection are recommended. Use an airgun meeting OSHA standards.)
188.8.131.52 If judged necessary, the engine block should be completely disassembled and cleaned thoroughly by solvent spraying with Varsol 3139. Alternatively, the block may be soaked in Penetone for about 12 h. (Warning - Health hazard.)
184.108.40.206 Scrape all gasket material from the cylinder block. (Warning - In addition to other precautions, unless it is known otherwise, treat all gasket material in the engine and subassemblies as though it contains asbestos. When stripping gaskets from parts, do not grind or file off the material or abrade it off with a wire brush or wheel. Use a putty knife to remove the gasket after it has been wetted with water or oil.)
220.127.116.11 Before each run, all oil gallery plugs and core hole plugs (except cup plugs) should be removed to allow the cleaning solution to contact the inside of the oil and water passages. This permits more efficient cleaning. As a minimum, the engine may be solvent flushed while remaining on the test stand.
18.104.22.168 Rinse the block in hot water to remove cleaning solution.
22.214.171.124 Dry the cylinder block with compressed air. (Warning - In addition to other precautions, to prevent possible personal injury, wear adequate eye protection. Use an airgun that conforms to OSHA requirements.)
(1) The above procedure may be used on all ordinary cast iron and steel parts of the engine, unless specifically mentioned.
8.3.2 Cylinder Head Cleaning - After the cylinder head has been disassembled and all of the plugs (except cup plugs) have been removed, thoroughly solvent clean the head and dry with compressed air. Do not soak heads in Penetone because it will deteriorate the fuel injector tube seals. Instead use an aliphatic hydrocarbon to wash the heads. (Warning - In addition to other precautions, aliphatic hydrocarbons and should not be ingested, nor come into contact with eyes or more than casual contact with the skin. Spray goggles and hand protection are recommended.)
8.3.3 Piston Ring Cleaning - Remove heavy carbon from the piston rings by using an ultrasonic bath with Oakite Rust Stripper as a cleaning medium. A concentration of 150 g/L has been found effective. Agitate for 1 h and rinse with hot water. Rinse rings with EF-411 as soon as possible to prevent rusting. (Warning - Health hazard.) (Warning - In addition to other precautions, the rust stripper is caustic. Use eye and hand protection.)
8.3.4 Air Box Cleaning - Special attention shall be given to the airbox area to ensure that there is no residual debris that could be ingested through the liner ports in subsequent tests. A check for air flow from the air box drain tubes should be made as outlined in the service manual.
8.3.5 Oil Heat Exchanger Cleaning - Disassemble and flush oil side with Varsol 3139. Water side may be cleaned as necessary.
8.3.6 Blower Cleaning - Remove rear cover and drain all oil, then wash front and rear with Varsol or equivalent.
8.3.7 Turbocharger Cleaning - Do not routinely wash or clean turbocharger; just drain oil.
8.3.8 Crankshaft - Blow out drilled passages in the crankshaft.
8.4 Periodic Maintenance Inspections - Use forms equivalent to those shown in Appendix X3. As contrasted with the inspections and test part measurements made in 8.2, make the following inspections only at periodic intervals based on the overhaul experience of the laboratory; not necessarily after each test. However they should be done after each failure where obvious overheating occurred.
8.4.1 Cylinder Block Inspection - Remove liners with the special tool described in the service manual. Do not attempt to push the liner out by inserting a bar in the liner ports and rotating the crankshaft, otherwise the piston may be damaged or the upper ring groove may collapse.
126.96.36.199 Inspect Block Bores - Because most of the engine cooling is accomplished by heat transfer through the cylinder liners to the water jacket, a good liner-to-block contact must exist when the engine is operating. After the cylinder liners are removed from the engine, the block bores shall be inspected as outlined in the service manual.
188.8.131.52 Check for Flatness - The cylinder head contact surfaces shall be checked for flatness with an accurate straight edge and a feeler gage. The cylinder head deck surfaces of the block shall not vary more than 0.003 in. (0.076 mm) transversely and not over 0.006 in. (0.152 mm) longitudinally.
184.108.40.206 Check Counterbore Depth - Make sure the cylinder liner counterbores in the block are clean and free of dirt. Then check the depth. They shall be either 0.4755 to 0.4770 in. (12.078 to 12.116 mm) or 0.4905 to 0.4920 in. (12.459 to 12.497 mm) and shall not vary more than 0.0015 in. (0.0381 mm) throughout the entire circumference. Tool J22273 or equivalent is recommended for this measurement.
220.127.116.11 Check Main Bearing Bores - Check the bore diameters with the main bearing caps in their original positions. The specified main bearing bore diameter is 4.812 to 4.813 in. (122.225 to 122.250 mm). If the bores do not fall within these limits, the block shall be rejected. Main bearing bores are line-bored with the bearing caps in place and thus are in longitudinal alignment. If a main bearing bore is more than 0.001 in. (0.025 mm) maximum overall misalignment or 0.0005 in. (0.013 mm) misalignment between adjacent bores, the block shall be line-bored or scrapped.
18.104.22.168 The cylinder block main bearing bore measurements should be made with the block in an upside down position on a flat surface rather than on an engine overhaul stand.
22.214.171.124 After Inspection - If the cylinder block is not to be used immediately, spray the machined surfaces with EF-411.
8.4.2 Cylinder Head Inspection:
126.96.36.199 It is good practice to inspect cylinder heads for cracks after each test. A number of methods are described in the service manual for this purpose. A service replacement cylinder head is available which includes the exhaust valve guides, valve seat inserts, water nozzles, injector tubes, pilot sleeves, bridge guides, valve spring seats and the necessary plugs. The head shall be rebuilt at least every five runs. If the plugs are replaced separately, coat the threads with Locktite Pipe Sealant with Teflon.
188.8.131.52 Leak test valves after each test. Commercial testers are specifically manufactured for this purpose.
184.108.40.206 Check exhaust valve to head protrusion/recession after each test and log the results on forms equivalent to those shown in Fig.X3.10. If valve recession exceeds 0.711 mm (0.028 in.) replace valve seats.
8.4.3 Rocker Arm Bushing, Injector Position - Check inside diameter of the bushing and record on Form 11 in (see Annex A5). Replace if rocker arm shaft to bushing clearance exceeds 0.102 mm (0.0040 in.).
8.4.4 Other Part and Sub-Assembly Inspection - Other parts and subassemblies should be inspected less frequently, based on laboratory experience. Procedures are outlined in detail in the service manual for the inspection of all parts and subassemblies. Particular attention should be paid to making visual inspections of such items as the turbocharger aftercooler and turbine wheel assembly where deposit build-up is gradual and therefore performance deterioration is difficult to detect.
8.5 Engine Build-up Procedures:
8.5.1 General - Assembly procedures and the numerous special tools required are not detailed in the following, but should be done in accordance with the instructions in the service manual.
8.5.2 Parts Selection - Instructions concerning the use of new or used parts are given under 8.2.
8.5.3 Engine Measurement Records - Record engine parts measurements on data sheets equivalent to those shown in Appendix X3. Certain critical parts measurements are also recorded in Annex A5.
8.5.4 Build-up Lubrication - Lubricate all engine parts with EF-411 during assembly.
8.5.5 Sealing Compounds - During rebuilding, cylinder head bolts and main bearing bolts which are torqued to specific settings shall be first coated with International Compound No.2. Be sure that no excess is left on the bolts. However, all bolts, plugs, fittings or fasteners, (including studs) that intersect with a through hole and come in contact with oil, fuel or coolant shall have a sealer applied to the threads. It is recommended that Loctite J26558-92 Pipe Sealant with Teflon, or equivalent, be used. Exercise care to use International Compound No.2 only when specified in the service manual.
8.5.6 Gaskets and Seals - Use new gaskets and seals as necessary at all locations during each engine assembly. Utilize gasket kit No. 23512684. The gasket between the turbocharger and blower (No. 8925778) shall be renewed each test.
8.5.7 Engine Assembly:
220.127.116.11 Install Connecting Rods to Pistons - Torque connecting rod bolts to 55 - 60 lbf•ft (75 - 81 N•m). Use International Compound No.2 on threads when torquing.
18.104.22.168 Install Pistons into Cylinder Liners - With the piston assembled to the connecting rod and the piston rings in place, lubricate the piston, rings, and inside surface of the piston ring compressor J2422 as described in the service manual. Use EF-411 to lubricate the surfaces.
22.214.171.124 Install Liners into Block - Slide the piston, rod, and liner assembly into the block bore until the liner flange rests against the insert in the counterbore in the block. Ensure that the various matchmarks described in the service manual are in line.
126.96.36.199 Install Lower Bearing Shell - Tighten the connecting rod bolt nuts to 60 - 70 lbf•ft (81 - 95 N•m).
188.8.131.52 Assemble and Install Cylinder Head - After cleaning and inspection, assemble and install the cylinder head as described in the service manual. Note that a special lifting tool is required. Note that the bolt tightening sequence described shall be followed.
184.108.40.206 Install Subassemblies - Complete the engine assembly by installing all remaining accessories, fuel lines, electrical connections, controls, etc.