ASTM D6618 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oils in Diesel Four-Stroke Cycle Supercharged 1M-PC Single Cylinder Oil Test Engine
6. Apparatus
6.1 Test Engine - A single-cylinder Caterpillar diesel oil test engine having a 2.2 L (134.1 in.) displacement is required. Bore and stroke are 13.0 cm (5.125 in.) and 16.5 cm (6.5 in.) respectively. The engine arrangement is shown in Fig. A1.1. The supply of test engines and parts is discussed in 6.22. The engine is equipped with the accessories or equipment listed in 6.2 through 6.24.

6.2 Air Pressure - Use a supercharging blower or other device arranged to control air pressure.

6.3 Air Intake System - Use the 1Y38 surge chamber and the air heater mechanism (see Annex A1) or its equivalent.

6.4 Humidity - Use a system to control humidity to the specified test conditions.

6.5 Cooling System - Use a closed, pressurized, circulating cooling system having an engine-driven centrifugal water pump.

6.6 Speed/Load Controls - Use a dynamometer or suitable loading device to control engine speed and measure load.

6.7 Starting - Use a suitable starting arrangement capable of 420 N·m (310 lbf·ft) breakaway and 373 N·m (275 lbf·ft) sustained torque at approximately 200 r/min.

6.8 Exhaust System - Use an exhaust system using piping and an exhaust barrel as specified in Annex A1. A restriction valve down stream of the barrel maintains the exhaust gases at a given back pressure as specified in the test conditions.

6.9 Data Acquisition - Configure all stands to acquire data automatically for speed, fuel flow, intake air pressure, intake air temperature, coolant temperature, oil-to-bearing temperature, and oil-to-jet pressure (as a minimum) with closed loop control on speed, intake air temperature, coolant temperature, and oil-to-bearing temperature (as a minimum).

6.10 Cylinder Head and Cylinder Assemblies - Only cylinder head and cylinder assemblies that have previously passed a calibration test are acceptable for non-reference testing.

6.11 Piston Cooling Nozzle:
6.11.1 Oil Jet Pressure Measurement - The following is required to allow for measurement of the piston cooling nozzle pressure: Replace the 3B9407 fitting with a 1/4 in. tee fitting, and reconnect the 1Y6 oil line. Modify the 1Y8199 oil pan to provide access for the pressure pickup. Use oil pressure gage 8M2743, or equivalent. Only piston cooling jets that have been flow-checked by the specified industry standard are approved for use. See footnote 11 for supplier. Fig. A1.2 shows the suggested modification of the 1Y8199 oil pan and necessary hardware for the cooling nozzle pressure pickup. All test engines with serial numbers greater than 2511252 will be provided with the pressure pickup modification.

6.11.2 Piston Cooling Jet Supplier - To improve precision, Perkin Elmer Automotive Research and Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) have agreed to provide flow-checked 1M-PC P-tubes to the industry. Perkin Elmer Automotive Research will flow and serialize the units and determine if they are within specification and will maintain records, while SWRI will coordinate the redistribution. Send P-tubes to be inspected to Perkin Elmer Automotive Research. The P-tubes will be flowed, using EF-411 oil at 37.8 +/- 0.6°C (100 +/- 1°F) and 165.5 +/- 0.5 kPa (24 +/- 0.5 psi) as measured at the location shown in Fig. A1.2. The acceptable flow range is 1.89 to 2.27 L/min (0.50 to 0.60 gal/min). To maintain impartiality in selecting P-tubes, only acceptable assemblies will be forwarded to SWRI as unmarked units. These units will be randomly selected for redistribution. In cases in which the only units available are from a single order, only those units will be returned. Assemblies that fall outside of the specifications will not be returned. Instead, Perkin Elmer Automotive Research will generate a nonconformance report with an additional copy to be sent to the laboratory that supplied the P-tube. The failed units will be returned to Caterpillar for credit. Perkin Elmer Automotive Research will indicate on the nonconformance report that the appropriate credit be issued to the originating laboratory. Additional piston cooling assemblies will need to be supplied by the requesting laboratory and submitted to Perkin Elmer Automotive Research. Perkin Elmer Automotive Research will enclose a statement with each unit inspected, disclaiming any liability for subsequent performance of the part. No attempt will be made to ensure that the tubing is properly configured or that any other physical property makes it suitable for use. Units damaged during shipment will not be tested, unless specifically requested. Include a packing list and separate purchase orders to Perkin Elmer Automotive Research and SWRI with each shipment. Please specify a name and address where the parts are to be returned.

6.12 Engine Oil Level Gage - Lower the bayonet gage housing 5 cm (2.0 in.) to provide for more accurate oil level readings. Parts required for this modification are shown in Fig. A1.3.

6.13 Crankcase Pressure Control Valve - Install a pressure control valve (1Y479) at the crankcase breather outlet to stabilize crankcase pressure. Installation is shown in Fig A1.4.

6.14 Oil Cooler Inlet Temperature - Record the temperature of the oil cooler inlet by installing a thermocouple in the pipe-tapped hole provided on the rear side of the oil-cooler cover adjacent to the oil inlet port. Care should be taken to provide sufficient thermocouple insertion depth to provide a mid-stream oil temperature.

6.15 Engine Oil System - Use the last chance screen 1Y3549. Modify the oil pump as shown in Fig. A1.10. Add the external oil pump bypass line for safety and convenience factors to adjust oil pressure on engine break-in and warm-up.

6.16 Cooling System - Replace the 7.6 cm (3 in.) standard cooling tower with the 12.7 cm (5 in.) pressurized cooling tower as shown in Fig. A1.6. Modify the cooling system to accommodate the pressurized cooling tower, bypass flow control and flow meter as shown in Fig. A1.7 and FigA1.8. Use a Barco Venturi Meter #BR 12705-16-31. Use brass or stainless steel pipe that has chamfered ends (45°) into and out of the venturi meter [15.2 cm (6 in.) minimum into and 5.1 cm (2 in.) minimum out]. Orient the high pressure tap (the first seen by the flow) horizontally.

6.17 Fuel System - Use a standardized engine fuel system to ensure that fuel-line pressure transients are held to acceptable values and to minimize cranking times. Use a Micro Motion flow meter having a range no greater than 0-90.7 kg/h (0-200 lb/h) to measure fuel flow rate.
6.17.1 The line lengths, line sizes, and fuel system components are shown in Fig. A1.5. Use this system without modification, with the possible exception that the fuel shut-off solenoid is eliminated if the line length from the engine-mounted filter to the injector pump is standardized at 107 +/- 1 cm (42.25 +/- 0.5 in.). Also, an external fuel pump may be used in place of the engine-mounted fuel pump. Control the fuel rate with either manual or automated fuel rack manipulation.

6.18 Intake Air System - Install a dry element oil and particle filter between the air supply source and each engine to be run. Use an air filter capable of 10 µm (or smaller) filtration. (Oil bath filters are not acceptable in this location.) Make air filter replacements as required to minimize pressure losses and with sufficient frequency to maintain the air heater barrel as free as possible form oil and dust particles. The 1Y38 surge chamber and air heater assembly required is shown in Annex A1.
6.18.1 Suitable equipment is required to maintain the specified moisture content, temperature, and pressure of the inlet air to the cylinder head. The accuracy of the humidification system is to be within +/- 0.648 g (+/- 10 grains) of the humidity-measuring, chilled-mirror dew point hydrometer (see 9.6.2).

6.19 Exhaust System - Uniformity in exhaust system pressure patterns within a laboratory and from laboratory-to-laboratory is required to minimize a major test variable. The dimensions and distance of the exhaust piping from the exhaust elbow to the barrel, as well as the volume of the exhaust barrel, are specified in Figs. A1.30 to A1.34. Note the exhaust barrel may be insulated or water cooled. The downstream distance of the restriction valve from the exhaust barrel is not specified.
6.19.1 Set the exhaust pressure at specified conditions as given in Table 1 by varying the restriction valve. Measure the pressure in the exhaust barrel as shown in Fig. A1.31. The location of the 1Y467 or equivalent exhaust thermocouple is shown in Fig. A1.30.

6.20 Blowby Meter, a displacement type gas meter or equivalent fitted with an oil separator and surge chamber. A fitting on the crankcase breather (see Fig. A1.4) permits attachment of the meter to the engine by using appropriate lengths of hose or pipe, or both, suitable to the laboratory's needs.

6.21 Thermocouples - Specified thermocouples (or equivalents) are required for obtaining temperatures at the following locations: air-to-engine (1Y468), exhaust temperature (1Y467), and water inlet, water outlet, oil-to-bearings (1Y466).
6.21.1 Install thermocouples 1Y468, 1Y467, and 1Y466 only at the temperature-sensing locations provided with the 1Y73 engine arrangement. Locate the immersion depth for water inlet, water outlet, and oil-to-bearing temperature sensors so that the tip of the sensor is midstream of the fluid measured. Immersion depth for the air and exhaust temperature sensors are measured as follows (variation from these dimensions is not permitted): Air temperature sensor depth: 27 +/- 2 mm (1 1/16 +/- 1/16 in.) Exhaust temperature sensor depth: 65 +/- 2 mm (2 9/16 +/- 1/16 in.)

6.22 Parts:
6.22.1 Procurement of Parts - Information concerning procurement of Caterpillar test engines and replacement parts and approval of equivalent parts substitutions allowed in this test method is obtained by contacting Caterpillar Inc. Other parts and their sources referred to throughout the procedure are found in the footnotes. Use all Caterpillar parts on a first-in-first-out basis.

6.22.2 All parts for the 1Y73 engine and the 1Y73 Conversion Kit that are nonconforming by reason of faulty manufacture should be discussed with the Engine System Technology Department (ESTD) at Caterpillar Inc. The test labs should contact ESTD when they believe a part is nonconforming: ESTD will determine if they want the part returned, or provide warranty without viewing the part. If ESTD determines that the part is nonconforming without viewing the part, the test labs will be asked to return the part to their Caterpillar dealer. ESTD will contact the dealer with the information that the part is being returned and provide warranty for it. If ESTD wants to view the part, they will issue a Return Goods Authorization Number (RGA) to the test lab and send the part and the form to Caterpillar Inc. If ESTD determines that the part is nonconforming, they will contact the dealer for the test lab and have the dealer provide warranty. A sample of the RGA Claim Form is shown in Fig. 1. It should include return goods authorization number, part name, hours on the part, part number, quantity, purchase order number, date purchased, test lab that purchased the part, contact person's name, phone, fax, and address, dealer's name that sold the part, and measurements or photographs, or both, to document the nonconformance.

6.23 Instrumentation, capable of meeting (or exceeding) the calibration tolerances, measuring resolutions, and maximum system time constants shown in Tables 2-4.

6.24 Crankcase Paint - Inspect crankcases regularly to ensure proper paint coating. Coat crankcases as necessary, using either of two approved coatings.

7. Reagents and Materials
7.1 Fuel - The specified test fuel is Haltermann Products 0.4 % Sulfur Diesel Test Fuel. All fuel shall meet the fuel specifications as shown in Annex A3 and shall be referenced through the ASTM TMC. Approximately 1137 L (300 gal) are required for each test. Include the fuel analysis for the last batch used for the test in the final report. The fuel supplier provides the analysis. If more than one batch is used, note this is in the comments section of the Unscheduled Downtime & Maintenance Summary form of the test report with the appropriate percentages of run time.

7.2 Test Oil - Approximately 30 to 34 L (8 to 9 gal) of test oil are required for each test.

7.3 Engine Coolant, a mixture of 118 mL (4 fluid oz) Part Number 3P2044 coolant additive (Pencool 2000) per 4 L (1 gal) of mineral-free water. Mineral-free water is defined as having a mineral content no higher than 34.2 ppm (2 grains/gal) total dissolved solids. A fresh coolant mixture is used for each new test.

7.4 Cleaning Materials:
7.4.1 Solvent - Use only mineral spirits meeting the requirements of Specification D235, Type II, Class C for Aromatic Content (0-2% vol), Flash Point (142°F/61°C, min) and Color (not darker than +25 on Saybolt Scale or 25 on Pt-Co Scale). (Warning - Combustible. Health hazard.) Obtain a Certificate of Analysis for each batch of solvent from the supplier.

7.4.2 Dispersant Engine Cleaner - Use Dispersant Engine Cleaner (order by this name) in solution with mineral spirits where called for in the engine flush procedure.

7.4.3 General Cleaning Agents - Use sodium bi-sulfate (Na2SO4) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) in solution with water in the cooling system flush procedure. (Warning - Eye and throat irritants; repeated exposure can cause dermatitis. Wear protective gloves, face mask, or chemical type goggles.)