ASTM D6923 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Engine Oils in a High Speed, Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine - Caterpillar 1R Test Procedure
9. Preparation of Apparatus
9.1 General Engine Assembly Practices - As a part of good laboratory practice, inspect all components and assemblies that are exposed when the engine is disassembled and record the information for future reference. Inspect valve train components, bearings, journals, housings, seals and gaskets, and so forth and replace as needed. Assemble the engine with components and bolt torques as specified in the 1Y3700 engine Service Manual (see Annex A8 for a partial list). It is the intent of this procedure for all engine assemblies and adjustments to be targeted to the mean of the specified values. Clean and lubricate the components in keeping with good assembly practices. Keep airborne dirt and debris to a minimum in the assembly area. Maintain standard engine assembly techniques and practices (such as staggering piston ring gap positions, and so forth).

9.2 Complete Engine Inspection - Perform a complete engine inspection prior to the first calibration test scheduled after 15000 h of test time. Ensure that wearing surfaces such as main bearings and journals, rod bearings and journals, camshaft bearings, valve train components, fuel system components, and so forth all are within manufacturer's specifications. Refer to the 1Y3700 Service Manual for disassembly, assembly, inspections, and specifications. Paint crankcases, as necessary, with either Caterpillar yellow primer or red Glyptal.

9.3 Copper Components - It is recommended that anytime a copper part is replaced, run an engine test until two consecutive 12 h periods show a stable copper level in the used oil. Do not use rocker arms with a package date earlier than January 2000.

9.4 Engine Lubricant System Flush - Flush the engine of used oil before every test. Annex A9 shows the Engine Flush Procedure andApparatus. Aflushing instruction sheet shown in Table A9.1 gives the step-by-step process required for flushing. The 1Y3700 engine includes five flushing nozzles in the crankcase and front cover (see Annex A9). These nozzles are piped in parallel with the 1Y3935 filter flushing adapter (or equivalent) from a laboratory–provided manifold that pressurizes fluids supplied by a flush cart (see Appendix X1). To increase flushing pressure, the oil pan may be plumbed as shown in Appendix X1. Seal the gear train housing during flush with a 1Y3917 round plug with a 117-8801 O-ring as shown in Annex A9. Seal the crankcase using a 1Y3979 block flush cover with an internal bleed passage for the cam oil supply. Bolt a 1Y3980 plastic jet aiming fixture to the flush cover that is also used for flushing (see Annex A9). Modify the crankcase side covers as shown in Annex A9 to accommodate the flushing wand for a thorough flushing of the crankcase. If the test oil is not available at engine assembly, Mobil EF411 oil may be substituted.

9.5 Engine Piston Cooling Jet - Use cooling jet part no. 1Y4011 and bolt 1Y4010. The piston cooling jets are flow-checked at the supplier and serialized to ensure proper performance, but the rod clearances are minimal, which may result in jet movement during assembly. Verify proper jet flow positioning using test oil or EF-411 before each test with the 1Y3980 plastic jet aiming fixture and 415 kPa oil pressure to the manifold. Record the cooling jet serial number.

9.6 Engine Measurements and Inspections - Measure and inspect the engine components prior to each test. Refer to the 1Y3700 Service Manual for information concerning component reusability and assembly not found in this procedure. The part numbers of components that need replacing are found in the 1Y3700 Parts Manual. Record the crankshaft angles at the specified maximum injector lift, exhaust, and intake maximum lift before each test using the reference listed in Annex A8. Record component part numbers and serial numbers and other required measurements as shown in the test report. Inspect and reuse the rocker arm roller followers and camshaft lobe surfaces based on Caterpillar Service Publication SEBF8256.

9.7 Cylinder Head - A reconditioned head is required for each test. Measurements after reconditioning shall be within specifications as shown in the 1Y3700 Service Manual. Do not swap the cylinder head/jug assembly from test stand-to-test stand. Use the head/jug assembly used to calibrate the stand for all non-reference oil testing in that stand. In the event of a cylinder head/jug failure during the calibration period, a cylinder head/jug used on a successful 1R calibration attempt within the past two years may be used without re-calibration. Annex A8 shows the cylinder head nut torque sequence. Use Caterpillar part no.175-7523-J for the inner spring, 175-7526-J for the outer spring and 186-2001 for the rotocoil.

9.8 Valve Guide Bushings - Clean the valve guide bushings with a solvent and bristle brush prior to assembly. Lubricate the bushings and valve stems with Mobil EF-411 prior to assembly. See the 1Y3700 Service Manual for guide reusability specifications. Install new valve guide seals for each test.

9.9 Fuel Injector - Remove the fuel injector from the cylinder head before reconditioning commences. Refer to the 1Y3700 Service Manual for removal and assembly. Return defective fuel injectors to Caterpillar for warranty and failure-mode testing using the form listed in Annex A12.

9.10 Piston and Rings - Use a new piston (1Y4016 iron crown, 1Y4015 aluminum skirt) and new rings (1Y4014, 1Y4013, 1Y4012) for each test. Clean all three rings with pentane and a lint-free cotton towel. Measure the ring side clearances and ring end gaps for all three rings (see AnnexA8). Keystone ring side clearance measurements require the ring to be confined in a dedicated slotted liner (see Appendix X1) or a 137.16 mm ring gauge. Measure the side clearances using four feeler gauges of equal width and 0.01 mm graduations at 90° intervals around the piston. Measure the rectangular ring side clearance this way as well. Measure the minimum side clearance as specified in ASTM Deposit Rating Manual 20. Record the measurements for these parts before and after each test. Compare the measurements before the test and after the test to determine the amount of wear. Assemble the piston with the part number toward the camshaft.

9.11 Cylinder Liner - Use a new 1Y3805 or 1Y3997 cylinder liner for each test. After removing the protective oil/grease with solvent, clean the liner bore with a hot tap water and soap solution, then rinse with hot tap water.
9.11.1 Measure and record the liner surface finish. The surface finish specification shown in Fig.A8.3 does not apply to the 1Y3997 liner.

9.11.2 Oil the liner bore with only Mobil EF-411. Assemble the cylinder liner, block and head with the torque specification shown in the 1Y3700 Service Manual or Annex A8.

9.11.3 Measure the liner with a dial bore gauge to ensure that the out-of-round and taper conditions are within specified tolerances measured at seven intervals as shown in Annex A8.

9.11.4 Measure the cylinder liner projection using the modified indicator shown in Annex A8.

9.11.5 Torque the cylinder liner support ring using the procedure shown in Annex A8.

9.12 Compression Ratio - Before starting each test, measure the piston-to-head clearance to ensure the proper compression ratio is used. Determine this dimension by using lead balls of approximately 3.5 mm in diameter. Locate four lead balls on the top of the piston at 90° intervals on the major and minor piston diameters. Hold them in place with light grease. With the piston near the top of the stroke, install the head and block assembly and torque to specifications. Turn the engine over top center by hand to compress the lead balls then remove the head and block assembly and measure the thickness of the lead balls to obtain the average piston-to-head clearance. The piston-to-head clearance specification is (1.62 +/- 0.07) mm. Use multiple 1Y3817 block gaskets to adjust the clearance. If the piston-to-head measurement exceeds the tolerance specification, check the crankshaft main and rod journals, connecting rod and main bearings, and piston pin and rod bushing for excessive wear. The specified compression ratio for the 1Y3700 engine is 16.2:1.

9.13 Engine Timing - Use ECM EPROM part no.169-5028 with a date code of 10/98. The engine ECM sets desired fuel injection timing to 6° (BTC). Record this timing using the Engine Technician Service Tool. Mechanically time the actual engine components as shown in Annex A8. Install the electronic sensors as shown in the Electronic Installation and Operation manual. Correctly assemble both the mechanical and electrical systems to produce the desired fuel timing.

9.14 Engine Coolant System Cleaning Procedure - Clean the coolant system when visual inspections show the presence of any oil, grease, mineral deposits, or rust following the procedure listed in Annex A3.

9.15 After the engine components have been prepared and assembled, perform the following:
9.15.1 Fill the crankcase with (5800 +/- 50) g of test oil.

9.15.2 Install a new 1R0713 oil filter.

9.15.3 Fill the coolant system with coolant specified in Section 7.

9.15.4 Ensure the facility coolant to the engine heat exchanger is operational.

9.15.5 Pressurize the fuel system to remove air, then return the system to a non-pressurized state before starting engine.

9.15.6 Ensure all other systems and facilities are operational before starting the engine break-in.