ASTM D6984 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Automotive Engine Oils in the Sequence IIIF, Spark-Ignition Engine
6.1 Laboratory - Observe the following laboratory conditions to ensure good control of test operations and good repeatability:
6.1.1 Maintain the ambient laboratory atmosphere relatively free of dirt, dust, and other contaminants.
6.1.2 Control the temperature of the room in which parts measurements are made so that the temperature for after-test measurements is within a range of +/- 3 °C relative to the temperature for the before-test measurements. If difficulties with parts fits are encountered, consider the effects of temperature coefficient of expansion. (See 6.2.)
6.1.3 Filter the air in the engine build-up area, and control its temperature and humidity to prevent accumulation of dirt or rust on engine parts.
6.1.4 If an engine is assembled in an area of controlled environment and moved to a non-controlled area, provide suitable protection of the engine so that moist air cannot enter the engine and promote rusting before the test.
6.1.5 Do not permit air from fans or ventilation systems to blow directly on an engine mounted on a test stand during test operation.
6.2 Drawings - Obtain the equipment drawings referenced in Annex A16 of this test method from the TMC. Because the drawings may not be to scale or may not contain dimensions when using them to fabricate special parts, do not use a dimensionless drawing as a pattern. Drawings supplied with dimensions are considered to be correct when the temperature of the equipment is 22 °C +/- 3 °C, unless otherwise specified.
6.3 Specified Equipment - Use the equipment specified in the procedure whenever possible. Substitution of equivalent equipment is allowed, but only after equivalency has been proven to the satisfaction of the TMC, the Test Procedure Developer, and the ASTM Sequence IIIF Surveillance Panel.
6.3.1 Do not use heat lamps or fans directed at the engine, and do not use insulation on the engine for oil or coolant temperature control.
NOTE 2 - For operator safety and the protection of test components, the use of shielding and insulation on the exhaust system may be incorporated downstream of the oxygen sensor elbow.
6.4 Test Engine - The test engine is based on a 1996-97 L36 3800 Series II V-6 engine with a displacement of 3.8 L and a 9.0:1 compression ratio, equipped with a production fuel injection system, a retrofit flat-tappet valvetrain, and a special Powertrain control module (PCM) for test specific dynamometer operation. Rebuild the engine as specified in this test method.
NOTE 3 - Complete test engines are not available for purchase. Test engines can be rebuilt using parts and test kits. See Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual; see Annex A5 and Annex A16 for listings of parts and related equipment.
6.4.1 Engine Parts - Use the engine parts specified in the Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual.
22.214.171.124 Use all engine parts as received from the supplier, Central Parts Distributor, Special Parts Supplier, or original equipment manufacturer, unless modifications are specified in this test method or the Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual.
126.96.36.199 Do not divert any parts obtained for use in Sequence IIIF testing to other applications.
188.8.131.52 Before disposing of any Sequence IIIF engine parts, destroy or otherwise render them useless for automotive engine applications.
184.108.40.206 Use the components listed in Annex A19 on a first in - first out basis. Specific guidelines are also listed in Annex A19.
6.5 Engine Speed and Torque Control - Use dynamometer speed and torque control systems that are capable of controlling the speed and torque as specified in Section 11 of this procedure.
6.6 Sequence IIIF Fluid Conditioning Module - Use the Kundinger Fluid Conditioning Module to control the following parameters: engine coolant, condenser coolant, oil cooler coolant, exhaust manifold coolant, and the test fuel supply. The system incorporates the following features: pumps, flow meters, flow control and three-way control valves, external heating and cooling systems, pressure regulator, and low-point drains. The system integrates with the test stand data acquisition and control computer for process control. If a laboratory wishes to build its own Fluid Conditioning Module, a list of suitable equipment can be found in Annex A17.
6.6.1 Engine Cooling System - The fluid conditioning module system supplies non-pressurized coolant at a flow rate of 160 L/min and controls temperature at 122 °C at the engine coolant outlet. The system incorporates the following features: pump, vortex-type flow meter, flow control and three-way control valves, external heating and cooling systems, and low-point drains. The system integrates with the test stand data acquisition and control computer for process control and maintains the specified engine coolant temperature and flow. The system should be flushed with clean water at least once each reference period.
6.7 Flushing Tank - Use a flushing tank such as that shown in drawings RX-116924-C, RX-117230-E, and RX-117231-C to circulate the cleaning agents. Use plumbing materials that are impervious to the acidic cleaning agents (stainless steel is satisfactory).
6.8 Coolant Mixing Tank - Use a mixing tank such as that shown in drawing RX-117350-D to premix the engine coolant.
6.9 Condenser Cooling System - Contained in the fluid conditioning module, supplies non-pressurized coolant at a flow rate of 10 L/min +/- 2 L/min and temperature controlled at 40 °C (see Annex A11) at the condenser outlet. The system incorporates the following features: condenser heat exchanger, BX-212-1 or OHT3F-075-1 condenser adapter fitting, pump, magnetic-type flow meter, flow control and three-way control valves, external heating and cooling systems, and low-point drains. The system integrates with the test stand data acquisition and control computer for process control and maintains the specified coolant temperature and flow.
6.10 Engine Oil-Cooling System - The system consists of an oil filter adapter, engine-mounted oil cooler, gaskets as specified in the Engine Assembly Manual, Section 8-Sheet 3 and 3a and a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The engine oil-cooling system uses engine coolant pumped from the Fluid Conditioning Module through a three-way control valve to the oil cooler circuit which contains a heat exchanger prior to the engine-mounted oil cooler. To maintain the specified oil temperature of 155 °C at the oil filter adapter, the three-way control valve varies the coolant flow as necessary through the oil cooler circuit. The heat exchanger in the oil cooler coolant circuit is a tube-and-shell style and uses process water as the cooling media (see Fig.A18.1). When testing high oxidation-sensitive oils, the oil cooling system may go into a bypass mode, causing the engine-mounted oil cooler to be by-passed. In this condition, the TMC may allow engineering judgment for the oil temperature Quality Index on reference oil tests.
6.10.1 Replace the oil cooler after every test.
6.10.2 Do not use cuprous lines or fittings in the oil system.
6.10.3 Do not use magnetic plugs in the oil system.
6.10.4 Use suitable hose and fittings when plumbing the oil-cooling system.
6.10.5 The oil cooler, oil filter, or both can be replaced once each test if the oil filter pressure differential during test operations is greater than 100 kPa, if bypass operation is detected or if the oil pressure delta slowly climbs as test hours are accumulated and decreases by more than 10 kPa in less than 1 min.
220.127.116.11 Replacement of the oil cooler, oil filter, or both may be performed only once per test (that is, if a filter is replaced at 30 h, the cooler cannot be replaced at 50 h).
18.104.22.168 If the oil filter is replaced during the test, drain any oil contained in the old oil filter into the new oil filter before installing it on the test engine.
22.214.171.124 No new test oil may be added to the engine as a result of oil filter or oil cooler replacement. Consider as oil consumption any oil lost as a result of oil filter or oil cooler replacement.
126.96.36.199 If the oil cooler, oil filter, or both are replaced during a test, place a note in the test report detailing what components were replaced and when they were replaced.
6.11 Fuel System - Contained in the Fluid Conditioning Module is a pressurized, recirculating fuel system, including a pressure regulator to provide 377.5 kPa +/- 12.5 kPa fuel pressure. The system should be switched off so no fuel pressure is present at the injector rail during engine shutdowns.
6.12 Induction Air Supply Humidity, Temperature, and Pressure - Maintain the throttle body intake air at a moisture content of 11.4 g/kg +/- 0.7 g/kg of dry air, a dry bulb temperature of 27 °C +/- 2 °C, and a static pressure of 0.050 kPa (see Annex A10). Measure temperature and pressure at the inlet air adapter.
6.13 Temperature Measurement - Use 1.6 mm or 3.2 mm metal-sheathed, Specification E608/E608M, iron-constantan (Type J) thermocouples for temperature measurements. Use the shortest possible thermocouples to meet the insertion depth requirements listed in this test method and minimize exposed thermocouple sheathing.
6.13.1 Thermocouple Location - Locate the sensing tip of all thermocouples in the center of the stream of the medium involved, unless otherwise specified.
188.8.131.52 Oil Filter Adapter - Install the thermocouple in the tapped hole in the oil filter adapter as shown in the Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual, Section 8-Sheet 3.
184.108.40.206 Oil Pan (Sump) - Install the thermocouple in the oil sump drain plug OHT3F-063-1 with the tip extending 19 mm to 25 mm beyond the end of the sump drain plug.
220.127.116.11 Engine Coolant In - Install the thermocouple in the coolant inlet adapter OHT3F-031-1 with the sensing tip centered in the coolant flow.
18.104.22.168 Engine Coolant Out - Install the thermocouple for the coolant outlet OHT3F-034-1 with the sensing tip centered in the coolant flow.
22.214.171.124 Condenser Coolant Out - Locate the thermocouple in the coolant-out fitting in the condenser with the sensing tip centered in the coolant flow.
126.96.36.199 Blowby Gas - Install the thermocouple at the outlet of the condenser with the sensing tip centered in the blowby gas flow.
188.8.131.52 Fuel - Install the thermocouple in the fuel rail fittings on the inlet side of the fuel rail.
184.108.40.206 Inlet Air - Install the thermocouple in the inlet air adapter, as shown in the Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual, Section 8-Sheet 4.
6.14 Air-to-Fuel Ratio Determination - Determine the engine air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) by measuring the CO, CO2, and O2 components of the exhaust gas sample with electronic exhaust gas analysis equipment. When using electronic exhaust gas analyzers, exercise particular care to dry the exhaust gas sample prior to introducing it into the analyzer. Take the exhaust gas samples from the exhaust manifold exit flanges. (See Annex A9 and Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual, Section 8-Sheet 1.)
6.14.1 Injector Flow Testing - Flow test the fuel injectors before each test according to the following procedure:
220.127.116.11 Use aliphatic naphtha as the calibration fluid.
18.104.22.168 Apply 276 kPa to the fuel rail.
22.214.171.124 Continuously apply 13 V to the injector solenoid.
126.96.36.199 Allow the injector to spray into a graduated cylinder capable of holding at least 250 mL.
188.8.131.52 Volume-check all injectors for 60 s and note the volume produced by each injector.
184.108.40.206 Observe the spray pattern that each injector produces; if the injector has a straight stream or dribbles, it should be discarded.
220.127.116.11 The six injectors that are to be installed on an engine fuel rail shall produce volumes that are within 5 mL of each other.
6.14.2 Remove the solvent that is remaining in the injector from the flow check using compressed air.
6.15 Exhaust and Exhaust Back Pressure Systems:
6.15.1 Exhaust Manifolds and Pipes - Install water-cooled exhaust manifolds and stainless runners as shown in the Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual, Section 8-Sheet 2.
6.15.2 Water-Jacketed Exhaust Pipes - For safety, water-jacketed exhaust pipes or external water spray systems are allowed only when introduced beyond the Y pipe and after the system drops below the bedplate or enters the overhead loft.
6.15.3 Exhaust Sample Lines - Install exhaust sample lines in the two exhaust manifold exit flanges. Both left and right banks should use the same sample line location (inboard or outboard), as shown in the Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual, Section 8-Sheet 1. Use good laboratory practice to ensure that water does not accumulate in the lines during engine operation.
6.15.4 Back-Pressure Lines - Install exhaust-back pressure lines in the two exhaust manifold exit flanges. Both left and right banks should use the same backpressure measurement location (inboard or outboard), as shown in the Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual, Section 8-Sheet 1. Use good laboratory practice to ensure that water does not accumulate in the lines during engine operation.
6.16 Blowby Flow Rate Measurement - Use the sharp-edge orifice meter, part number RX-116169-A1, revision N, to measure engine blowby flow rates. (See 11.11.)
6.17 Pressure Measurement and Pressure Sensor Location - Use electronic pressure transducers located as indicated in this test method.
6.17.1 Intake Manifold Vacuum - Use a transducer having a range of 0 kPa to 100 kPa. Connect the transducer to the vacuum outlet located on the intake plenum main vacuum port. Tee the transducer, manifold absolute pressure sensor, and fuel rail pressure regulator all together from the main port.
6.17.2 Engine Oil Gallery Pressure - Use a transducer having a range of 0 kPa to 700 kPa. Connect the transducer to the location shown in the Sequence IIIF EngineAssembly Manual, Section 8-Sheet 3 (OUT Port, oil to block).
6.17.3 Oil Pump Outlet Pressure - Use a transducer having a range of 0 kPa to 700 kPa. Connect the transducer to the location shown in the Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual, Section 8-Sheet 3 (IN Port, oil to filter).
6.17.4 Exhaust Back Pressure - Use a transducer having a range of 0 kPa to 10 kPa. Attach the line to the exhaust end plate as shown in the Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual, Section 8-Sheet 1.
6.17.5 Inlet Air Pressure - Use a transducer having a range of 125 Pa. Connect the transducer to the air inlet adapter as shown in the Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual, Section 8-Sheet 4.
6.17.6 Crankcase Pressure - Use a transducer having a range of -125 Pa to +125 Pa. Connect the transducer to the front of the lower intake manifold as shown in the Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual, Section 6-Sheet 7.
6.18 PCV Plug - Block off the positive crankcase ventilation system during testing using a dummy PCV valve, part number OHT3F-002-1, as shown in the Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual, Section 6-Sheet 11.
6.19 Parts Modifications - Modify the following parts according to the instructions listed in the Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual:
6.19.1 Throttle Body, Section 7-Sheet 5.
6.19.2 Intake Manifold, Section 6-Sheet 7.
6.19.3 Engine Block, Section 1-Sheet 2.
7. Reagents and Materials
7.1 Test Fuel - Use only EEE unleaded fuel (Warning - Flammable. Health hazard) (see Annex A7, Fig.A7.1), observing the following:
7.1.1 Make certain that all tanks used for transportation and storage are clean before filling with test fuel.
7.1.2 Verify that at least 2000 L of test fuel (Warning - Flammable. Health hazard) is available for use before initiating a test.
7.1.3 Analyze quarterly the contents of each storage tank that contains fuel used for qualified Sequence IIIF tests to ensure the fuel has not deteriorated or been contaminated in storage. Analyze the fuel for Distillation, Gravity, RVP, Sulfur, and Gums. Send the results from these analyses to the TMC for inclusion in the Sequence III Test Fuel database.
7.2 Engine and Condenser Coolant - Use ethylene glycol meeting Specification E1119 for industrial grade ethylene glycol (Warning - Combustible. Health hazard).
7.3 Coolant Additive - Use Nacool 2000 or Pencool 2000 coolant additive for the engine and condenser coolant (Warning - Combustible. Health hazard. See appropriate MSDS).
7.4 Coolant Preparation - Prepare the coolant blend for the engine coolant system, and for the oil cooler and condenser coolant system, in the following manner:
7.4.1 Do not apply heat either during, or following, the coolant preparation.
7.4.2 Use a container of a size adequate to hold the entire coolant blend required by both systems. See drawing RX-117350-D for an example of a suitable container.
7.4.3 Add the required amount of glycol (Warning - Combustible. Health hazard) to the container.
7.4.4 Add the required amount of additive concentrate to the container to achieve a concentration of 15.625 mL/L of coolant additive-to-glycol (Warning - See appropriate MSDS).
7.4.5 Mix the blend in the container for 30 min.
7.4.6 Add the blend to the engine coolant system and the condenser coolant system.
7.5 Pre-Test Cleaning Materials - Use the cleaning materials (Warning - See appropriate MSDS) specified in the following list for cleaning of parts to be used in the test. Do not use unapproved substitutes (See Note 4).
NOTE 4 - Only these specific materials and sources have been found satisfactory. If chemicals other than these are proposed for use, equivalency shall be proven and approval obtained from the TMC.
7.5.1 Use Penmul L460 as the parts cleaning agent (Warning - Corrosive. Health hazard.).
7.5.2 Solvent - Use only mineral spirits meeting the requirements of Specification D235, Type II, Class C for Aromatic Content (0 vol % to 2 vol %), Flash Point (61 °C, min) and Color (not darker than +25 on Saybolt Scale or 25 on Pt-Co Scale). (Warning - Combustible. Health hazard.) Obtain a Certificate of Analysis for each batch of solvent from the supplier.
7.5.3 Sequence IIIF Test component cleaner, a mixture (by mass) of: 94 parts oxalic acid (Warning - Corrosive. Health hazard.), and 6 parts dispersant (Warning - Corrosive. Health hazard.).
NOTE 5 - If permitted by the hazardous materials disposal practices in a laboratory, sodium carbonate can be used to neutralize the oxalic acid in used Sequence IIIF Test component cleaner.
7.5.4 Use NAT-50 or PDN-50 soap in automatic parts washers to clean Sequence IIIF engine parts. If using an ultrasonic cleaner, use solution 7 and solution B or a 50/50 Brulin US Solution of 815 GD and 815 QR-DF in a 12.5 % concentration. (See 9.5.)
7.6 Sealing and Anti-seize Compounds - Use the sealing compounds specified in the following list.
7.6.1 Use Permatex No.2 non-hardening sealer as the sealing compound for cylinder head bolts.
7.6.2 Use Perfect Seal Number 4 brush-type sealing compound as the sealing compound for front and rear cover gaskets.
7.6.3 Use only GM Autocare Assembly Adhesive, part number 12346141, Dow RTV Grade 3154 sealer, or Prematex Ultra Black Sealer, part number 24105, on the oil pan gasket and intake manifold gasket only. (See Sequence IIIF Engine Assembly Manual, Section 4-Sheet 13 and Section 6-Sheet 6.)
7.6.4 Polytetrafluoroethylene tape may be used, provided it does not come into contact with engine oil.
8. Test Oil Sample Requirements
8.1 Selection - The supplier of the test oil sample shall determine that the test oil sample is representative of the lubricant formulation to be evaluated and that it is not contaminated.
8.2 Quantity - The supplier shall provide 15 L of the test oil sample.
NOTE 6 - A Sequence IIIF test can be conducted with as little as 12 L of test oil, provided that no spillage or leakage occur during test preparation. The greater quantity is specified to accommodate minor spillage and leakage.
8.3 Storage Prior to Test - The test laboratory shall store the test oil sample in a covered building to prevent contamination by rainwater.