DIN EN 14214 Automotive fuels - Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines - Requirements and test methods
5 Requirements and test methods
5.1 Dyes and markers
The use of dyes or markers is allowed.

5.2 Additives
In order to improve the performance quality, the use of additives is allowed. Suitable fuel additives without known harmful side effects are recommended in the appropriate amount, to help to avoid deterioration of driveability and emissions control durability. Other technical means with equivalent effect may also be used.

NOTE 1 Deposit forming tendency test methods suitable for routine control purposes have not yet been identified and developed.

NOTE 2 For further information on preventing contamination by water or sediment that may occur in the supply chain it is advisable to check CEN/TR 15367-1 [1].

5.3 Stabilizing agents
In order to improve the long term stability of FAME, it is recommended that stabilizing agents should be added to the product immediately after its production, at least before its eventual blending into a mixture with petroleum based diesel fuel.

5.4 Generally applicable requirements and related test methods
5.4.1 When tested by the methods indicated in Table 1, FAME shall be in accordance with the limits specified in Table 1. The test methods listed in Table 1 have been shown to be applicable to FAME in an interlaboratory test programme. Precision data from this programme are given in normative Annex A, where these were found to be different from the precision data given in the test methods for petroleum products.

5.4.2 In case of a need for identification of FAME, a recommended method based on separation and characterisation of FAME by LC/GC is EN 14331 [2].

5.4.3 In case of a need for a check upon FAME quality, iodine value of FAME may be calculated by the method presented in Annex B, but this method does not constitute an alternative to the iodine value requirement of Table 1. See also the Foreword and Introduction.

5.4.4 The limiting value for the carbon residue given in Table 1 is based on product prior to addition of ignition improver, if used. If a value exceeding the limit is obtained on finished fuel in the market, EN ISO 13759 shall be used as an indicator of the presence of a nitrate-containing compound. If an ignition improver is thus proved present, the limit value for the carbon residue of the product under test cannot be applied. The use of additives does not exempt the manufacturer from meeting the requirement of maximum 0.30 % (m/m) of carbon residue prior to addition of additives.

5.4.5 FAME fuel shall be free from any adulterant or contaminant that may render the fuel unacceptable for use in diesel engine vehicles.

5.5 Climate dependent requirements and related test methods
5.5.1 For climate-dependent requirements options are given to allow for seasonal grades to be set nationally. The options are for temperate climates six CFPP (cold filter plugging point) grades and for arctic climates five different classes. Climate-dependent requirements are given in Table 2. Table 2 is divided into two sections, one for temperate climates (Table 2a) and one for arctic climates (Table 2b). When tested by the methods given in the Tables 2a and 2b, FAME "as fuel for diesel engines" shall be in accordance with the limits specified in these tables.

5.5.2 The climate-dependent requirements in Table 2 do not apply for FAME being used as a blend component in EN 590 diesel fuel.

NOTE A requirement for FAME to meet the climate-dependent requirements could result in incompatibility between the cold flow additives used in the FAME and the diesel fuel. This may compromise the performance of the finished diesel/FAME blend in respect of its low temperature operability and cause field failures as result of filter plugging in cold weather. Cold flow additives should be specifically matched to the base diesel fuel and FAME quality to ensure correct performance consistent with the requirements set out in EN 590. The choice of cold flow additive technology should be a contractual matter between the fuel blender and the biodiesel supplier taking into account the climatic-dependent requirements of the finished diesel fuel.

5.5.3 In a national annex to this European Standard each country shall detail requirements for a summer and a winter grade and may include (an) intermediate and/or regional grade(s) which shall be justified by national meteorological data.

5.6 Precision and dispute
5.6.1 All test methods referred to in this European Standard include a precision statement according to EN ISO 4259. In cases of dispute, the procedures described in EN ISO 4259 shall be used for resolving the dispute, and interpretation of the results based on the test method precision shall be used.

However, the methods currently available for FAME content and triglyceride content, do not meet the 2R requirement of EN ISO 4259 at the limit in Table 1. At the moment revised methods are under development in a joint effort by CEN/TC 19 and CEN/TC 307.

5.6.2 In cases of dispute concerning density, EN ISO 3675 shall be used with the determination carried out at 15 °C.
In cases of dispute concerning flash point, EN ISO 3679 shall be used.
In cases of dispute concerning oxidation stability, prEN 15751 shall be used.
In cases of dispute concerning free glycerol, EN 14105 shall be used.
In cases of dispute concerning metal content, EN 14538 shall be used, as EN 14108 and EN 14109 do not meet the 2R requirements of EN ISO 4259 at the limit in Table 1.

5.6.3 For the determination of cetane number alternative methods may also be used in cases of dispute, provided that these methods originate from a recognized method series, and have a valid precision statement, derived in accordance with EN ISO 4259, which demonstrates precision at least equal to that of the referenced method. The test result, when using an alternative method, shall also have a demonstrable relationship to the result obtained when using the reference method.