Standard test methods for water in transformer oil
GB/T 7600: Determination of water in transformer oil by Coulometric Karl Fischer titration.NB/SH/T 0207: Determination of water in insulating liquids by Coulometric Karl Fischer titration.IEC 60814 Insulating liquids, oil-impregnated paper and presssboard: Determination of water by automatic Coulometric ...
Homogenizer in Karl Fischer titration system
1. Used directly in the titration cell;2. Volumetric system only;3. Increases surface area and water extraction of the sample;4. Ideal for solid samples and viscous liquids, such as pharmaceutical tablets, foodstuffs, paints and oils.
Types of Karl Fischer titration
There are 2 types of Karl Fischer titration: one is Volumetric, and the other is Coulometric.Although the endpoint of the reaction is marked by a persistence of the yellow color (iodine color), using the eyes is not very accurate. Both methods use bipotentiometric titration to measure the amount of iodine ...
The Karl Fischer reaction
Karl Fischer titration iinvolves two reaction:In the first reaction, an alcohol (usually methanol or ethanol), sulfur dioxide and a base react to form an alkylsulfite intermediate.In the second reaction, the alkylsulfite reacts with iodine and the water from the sample.Because water and iodine are consumed ...
How does Karl Fischer titration work?
Karl Fischer titration can be summarized into a series of steps:1. Add reagent (titrant) to a burette; (The reagents include alcohol, sulfur dioxide, a base and iodine)2. Add sample solvent to the titration vessel;3. Begin stirring the vessel;4. Zero the instrument by titrating unwanted moisture in the ...
What is Karl Fischer titration?
1. Karl Fischer is an analytical technique used to measure the moisture content (water content) in solids, liquids or gases.2. Karl Fischer was a chemist working at a petrochemical company in Germany in the 1930's. He developed the technique.3. Titration is defined as "A technique to determine the concentration ...
Origin of gases in transformer oil
Fault gases are caused by corona (partial discharge), thermal heating (pyrolysis) and arcing. Partial discharge is a fault of low level energy which usually occurs in gas-filled voids surrounded by oil impregnated material. The main cause of decomposition in partial discharges is ionic bombardment of ...
Transformer oil analysis - Transformer Oil Gas Analysis
Transformers are vital components in both the transmission and distribution of electrical power. The early detection of incipient faults in transformers is extremely cost effective by reducing unplanned outages. The most sensitive and reliable technique used for evaluating the health of oil filled electrical ...
Transformer oil analysis - Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)
Polychlorinated biphenyl's (PCB) is a synthetic transformer insulating fluid, that has found its way into mineral insulating oil via cross contamination. Polychlorinated biphenyl: Non-specific methods that determines chlorine in oil, as all PCBs contain some amount of chlorine. This test is susceptible ...
Relationship between interfacial tension and acid number
There is a definite relationship exists between acid number and interfacial tension. An increase in acid number should normally be followed by a drop in interfacial tension. The interfacial tension test is a powerful tool for determing how an insulating oil has performed and how much life is left in ...